# adaptivity.pyΒΆ

In this script we solve the Laplace problem on a unit square that has the bottom-right quadrant removed (a.k.a. an L-shaped domain) with Dirichlet boundary conditions matching the harmonic function

$\sqrt[3]{x^2 + y^2} \cos\left(\tfrac23 \arctan\frac{y+x}{y-x}\right),$

shifted by 0.5 such that the origin coincides with the middle of the unit square. This variation of a well known benchmark problem is known to converge suboptimally under uniform refinement due to a singular gradient in the reentrant corner. This script demonstrates that optimal convergence can be restored by using adaptive refinement.

 15 import nutils, numpy 

The main function defines the parameter space for the script. Configurable parameters are the element type (square, triangle, or mixed), type of basis function (std or spline, with availability depending on element type), polynomial degree, and the number of refinement steps to perform before quitting (by default the script will run forever).

 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 def main(etype: 'type of elements (square/triangle/mixed)' = 'square', btype: 'type of basis function (h/th-std/spline)' = 'h-std', degree: 'polynomial degree' = 2, nrefine: 'number of refinement steps (-1 for unlimited)' = -1): domain, geom = nutils.mesh.unitsquare(2, etype) x, y = geom - .5 exact = (x**2 + y**2)**(1/3) * nutils.function.cos(nutils.function.arctan2(y+x, y-x) * (2/3)) domain = domain.trim(exact-1e-15, maxrefine=0) linreg = nutils.util.linear_regressor() for irefine in nutils.log.count('level'): ns = nutils.function.Namespace() ns.x = geom ns.basis = domain.basis(btype, degree=degree) ns.u = 'basis_n ?lhs_n' ns.du = ns.u - exact sqr = domain.boundary['trimmed'].integral('u^2 d:x' @ ns, degree=degree*2) cons = nutils.solver.optimize('lhs', sqr, droptol=1e-15) sqr = domain.boundary.integral('du^2 d:x' @ ns, degree=7) cons = nutils.solver.optimize('lhs', sqr, droptol=1e-15, constrain=cons) res = domain.integral('basis_n,k u_,k d:x' @ ns, degree=degree*2) lhs = nutils.solver.solve_linear('lhs', res, constrain=cons) ndofs = len(ns.basis) error = domain.integral('_i d:x' @ ns, degree=7).eval(lhs=lhs)**.5 rate, offset = linreg.add(numpy.log(len(ns.basis)), numpy.log(error)) nutils.log.user('ndofs: {ndofs}, L2 error: {error[0]:.2e} ({rate[0]:.2f}), H1 error: {error[1]:.2e} ({rate[1]:.2f})'.format(ndofs=len(ns.basis), error=error, rate=rate)) bezier = domain.sample('bezier', 9) x, u, du = bezier.eval(['x_i', 'u', 'du'] @ ns, lhs=lhs) nutils.export.triplot('sol.png', x, u, tri=bezier.tri, hull=bezier.hull) nutils.export.triplot('err.png', x, du, tri=bezier.tri, hull=bezier.hull) if irefine == nrefine: break refdom = domain.refined ns.refbasis = refdom.basis(btype, degree=degree) indicator = refdom.integral('refbasis_n,k u_,k d:x' @ ns, degree=degree*2).eval(lhs=lhs) indicator -= refdom.boundary.integral('refbasis_n u_,k n_k d:x' @ ns, degree=degree*2).eval(lhs=lhs) supp = ns.refbasis.get_support(indicator**2 > numpy.mean(indicator**2)) domain = domain.refined_by(ns.refbasis.transforms[supp]) return ndofs, error, lhs 

If the script is executed (as opposed to imported), nutils.cli.run() calls the main function with arguments provided from the command line. For example, to perform four refinement steps with quadratic basis functions starting from a triangle mesh run python3 adaptivity.py etype=triangle degree=2 nrefine=4 (view log).

 81 82 if __name__ == '__main__': nutils.cli.run(main) 

Once a simulation is developed and tested, it is good practice to save a few strategic return values for regression testing. The nutils.testing module, which builds on the standard unittest framework, facilitates this by providing nutils.testing.TestCase.assertAlmostEqual64() for the embedding of desired results as compressed base64 data.

  90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 class test(nutils.testing.TestCase): @nutils.testing.requires('matplotlib') def test_square_quadratic(self): ndofs, error, lhs = main(nrefine=2, etype='square', degree=2) with self.subTest('degrees of freedom'): self.assertEqual(ndofs, 149) with self.subTest('L2-error'): self.assertAlmostEqual(error[0], 0.00065, places=5) with self.subTest('H1-error'): self.assertAlmostEqual(error[1], 0.03461, places=5) with self.subTest('left-hand side'): self.assertAlmostEqual64(lhs, ''' eNo1j6FrQmEUxT8RBi4KllVfMsl3z/nK4zEmLC6bhsKCw2gSw5IPFsymGbZiWnr+By8Ii7Yhsk3BMtC4 Z9sJ223ncs85vzvmM9+Yhix8hDIjtnkdHqQSdDDDj1Qajr5qPXN/07MZ2vI4V7UOIvmdO/oEZY45xYDn oR7ikLHAHVpcs2A1TLhChDO+MOeWt5xjYzm6fOQrGxxiZPeoMGaf37hCyU72hB0u6PglPcQcKxRI/KUd 7AYLvMPpsqGkCTPumzWf+qV92kKevjK36ozDP/FSnh1iteWiqWuf+oMaKuyKaC1i52rKPokiF2WLA/20 bya+ZCPbWKRPpvgFaedebw==''') @nutils.testing.requires('matplotlib') def test_triangle_quadratic(self): ndofs, error, lhs = main(nrefine=2, etype='triangle', degree=2) with self.subTest('degrees of freedom'): self.assertEqual(ndofs, 98) with self.subTest('L2-error'): self.assertAlmostEqual(error[0], 0.00138, places=5) with self.subTest('H1-error'): self.assertAlmostEqual(error[1], 0.05324, places=5) with self.subTest('left-hand side'): self.assertAlmostEqual64(lhs, ''' eNprMV1oesqU2VTO1Nbko6myWbhpq+kckwST90avjRgYzptYm+YYMwBBk3GQWavZb1NXs2+mm83um1WY bQbyXYEiQWbKZjNM7wJVzjBlYICoPW8CMiXH+LXRR9NwoPkg82xN5IB2MZu2mGabSBnnAbGscYEJj3GV YQAQg/TVGfaA7RI0BsErRjeNeowDgDQPmF9gkmciaJxtArGjzrAKCGWNpYAQAL0kOBE=''') @nutils.testing.requires('matplotlib') def test_mixed_linear(self): ndofs, error, lhs = main(nrefine=2, etype='mixed', degree=1) with self.subTest('degrees of freedom'): self.assertEqual(ndofs, 34) with self.subTest('L2-error'): self.assertAlmostEqual(error[0], 0.00450, places=5) with self.subTest('H1-error'): self.assertAlmostEqual(error[1], 0.11683, places=5) with self.subTest('left-hand side'): self.assertAlmostEqual64(lhs, ''' eNprMT1u6mQyxUTRzMCUAQhazL6b3jNrMYPxp5iA5FtMD+lcMgDxHa4aXzS+6HDV+fKO85cMnC8zMBzS AQDBThbY''')